The Falls Formation

Volcanic activity created this natural Wonder of the World

The apt local Tonga name is “Mosi-oa-Tunya” - the Smoke that Thunders.

During the Jurassic Period (150-200 million years ago), volcanic activity resulted in thick basalt deposits covering large parts of Southern Africa. As the lava cooled and solidified, cracks appeared in the hard basalt crust, which were filled with clay and lime. Erosion and the course of the mighty Zambezi River cut through these softer materials, forming the first of a series of waterfalls.

Mosi-oa-Tunya, or "the smoke that thunders”, became known to the western world as Victoria Falls only after Dr David Livingstone first set eyes upon this astonishing natural wonder in 1855, a heartbeat ago in geological time and named them after his British Queen


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